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What does this mean:

“Founder Effect Analysis is the genetic calculation of mutations within the Y-Chromosome to measure common ancestry to the progenitor forefather within a family bloodline. It is done between two or more male descendants of a single family bloodline.”

On December 6, 2020, I (Lynda Sena de Kouba) had a conversation with Angel de Cervantes and Paul Cochet, Jr., regarding our Lobato line. My Great-Grandfather was Juan Nepomuseno Lobato, born on June 20, 1852 in San Miguel del Vado, NM. He was married to Gabriela Martin or Martinez on June 1, 1876, at Santa Clara Catholic Church in Wagon Mound, NM and two of their sons were Toribio Lobato and Felipe Lobato.

Angel provided us with a “Founder Effect Analysis” at the Y-DNA 67 Marker test of our Great-Grandfather Juan N. Lobato utilizing the 67 markers of Y-DNA for Toribio Lobato’s son Herman Lobato and Juan’s Great-Grandson Leo Lobato. Leo Lobato is the son of Genovevo Lobato, Grandson of Felipe Lobato and Great-Grandson of Juan N. Lobato.

It is normal for all of the Y-DNA STR Markers to be identical, within one generation, when comparing close family DNA matches. If all Y-DNA 67 Markers are identical, the Genetic Distance is zero (0). In this case, the Genetic Distance is one (1) because 66 Markers are a match, and one Marker is a mismatch. See the comparison chart between Leo and Herman.

Angel stated that Herman Lobato has a “Forward Count mutation” of 19 at the DYS576 marker. This DYS576 marker code is a “Fast” mutation. Normally a fast mutation can occur within 3-4 generations or even within one. This DYS576 code mutation is highlighted in yellow in the image showing all 67 Markers.

The numbers in each Marker are called STRs (Short Tandem Repeats). They are Short= ranging from 1 to 6 nucleotides., Tandem = located one after another at a specific location and Repeats = repeatedly present at a specific interval like in the Image below.

What is interesting is that it appears that Toribio Lobato’s line is creating a new family branch of Lobato males.

Leo Lobato has a DYS576 “mutation count” of 18. As you can see for Herman Lobato, his “Forward Count mutation” is 19.

In order for a determination to be made if the Mutation at 19 will continue, we must test one of Herman Lobato’s sons, or a later progeny. If the son or later progeny has the same mutation it confirms the creation of a new family branch on the Lobato males.

The Lobato Haplogroup is R-M269 (R1b1) which indicates Celt-Iberian ancestry.

My Fifth Great-Grandfather was Tomas Lobato, born c. 1725, in Santa Fe, New Mexico and his wife, my Fifth Great Grandmother was Petrona (Petra) Encinias, born c. 1728 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. At this time, I have not been able to trace further than Tomas Lobato and Petra Encinias.

Here is the Y-DNA tree based on the paper trail and the Y-DNA results.



1. New Mexico DNA Project, Angel Cervantes, Executive Director

New Mexico DNA Project Website:

2. Paul Cochet, Jr.

3. Santa Barbara County Genealogical Society DNA Project Website:

4. Graphics: Tom J. Martinez

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Galeana (San Buenaventura) 1802 census.

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