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Let's learn more about how Hispanics migrated to the Southwest and to Pueblo. This particular branch of humanity has taken approximately 300 years to migrate about 1,900 miles from Mexico City, Mexico to Pueblo, Colorado. Thousands of years before, Native Americans migrated to the Americas from Asia. On average, Hispanics have about 30% Native American in their genes.

Pre-Colonial Timeline
21,000 years ago to 1300 AD

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The theory of a land bridge that had spanned between Asia and North America thousands of years ago has fueled the imagination of explorers and scientists for centuries.

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Approximately 18,000 years ago people crossed over the land bridge from Asia to the Americas. Pueblo Bonito was part of this migration.

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Ancient Culture Regions

As people spread across the continent they traded with each other as can be seen by finding bird feathers in the pueblos of Chaco Canyon that can only be from birds in Mexico.

Colonial Timeline
Spanish Arrives and Explores
the New World
1492 to 1600

Queen Isabella I unified Spain through her marriage to Ferdinand II of Aragon, and she financed the expedition of Christopher Columbus, leading to the discovery of the Americas. She also completed the Reconquista but infamously expelled Jews and Muslims and empowered the Spanish Inquisition.

Cristopher Columbus Journal

An image of the Spanish landing in Veracruz, Mexico, in 1519. Florentine Codex, cover, Book 12.

Hernan Cortez and La Malinche meet Moctezuma in Tenochtitlán, November 8, 1519


When the Franciscan Priest, Fray Marcos de Niza, returned from the north (what is now northern New Mexico) with tales of a vast empire, Viceroy Mendoza began assembling an expedition to conquer and claim the civilization for Spain. The civilization was thought to be the rumored "Seven Cities of Gold", later referred to as Cíbola. When Mendoza commissioned Vázquez de Coronado to command the expedition to Cíbola.

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Native American Women Inspired the Women’s Rights Movement. 

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Our Lady of Guadalupe, also known as the Virgin of Guadalupe, is a Catholic title of Mary, mother of Jesus associated with a series of five Marian apparitions, which are believed to have occurred in December 1531, and a venerated image on a cloak enshrined within the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City.

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Veracruz 1519

Hernán Cortés founded the city of Veracruz while searching for gold in the region. The Port of Veracruz prospered from being the main link between Spain and colonial Mexico.

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Mexico City 1628


American Indians had lived along the Rio Grande for centuries when Juan de Oñate arrived with the first European settlers in 1598.

Migration Timeline
1600 to 1700


The San Miguel Mission, built in 1610, is the oldest church in the U.S.A., located in Santa Fe, the oldest capital city.


Casta (Spanish: [ˈkasta]) is a term which means "lineage" in Spanish and Portuguese and has historically been used as a racial and social identifier

The encomienda system was a form of forced and unpaid labour used by Spanish authorities and settlers in the colonies of the Spanish Empire. In return, the labourers were given military protection and the opportunity to be converted to Christianity.

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1680 Pueblo Revolt

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El Paso Del Norte -Ten years of refuge

Don Diego de Vargas, the Spanish Governor of New Mexico, leads a military expedition to reconquer Santa Fe and other territory that was taken by Native Americans during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680.

Migration Timeline
1700 to 1800

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This is the oldest house in Santa Fe, NM 1740-1767

Santa Fe was established in 1608

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Villa de Albuquerque 1706

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The Villasur Expedition Massacre 1720

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Details from a map by Maria Y Pacheco c. 1760 shows dance and dress of Indians (right), and Apaches fighting against Spaniards.


Abiquiu, New Mexico

The Spanish Crown provided land grants to Genizaros to act as soldiers to defend the frontier from raiding tribes such as Comanches.

Penitentes gather around a wooden cross for a Good Friday ceremony on a hillside in Starkv

American Spanish, literally, penitent, singular of Penitentes Penitents, short for Los Hermanos Penitentes The Penitent Brothers, religious society that originated in Mexico

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Juan Bautista de Anza


Chief Cuerno Verde

Juan Bautista de Anza, then Governor of New Mexico, marched, camped and fought the feared Comanche Chief Cuerno Verde (Greenhorn) on September 3, 1779, just eighteen miles south of Pueblo, Colorado.

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Spanish and Colonial Soldiers

Migration Timeline
1800 to 1850


Map of Mexican Land Grants in Colorado


Mexican War of Independence

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Mexican American War

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Dona Tules

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Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, (Feb. 2, 1848), treaty between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican War. It was signed at Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo, which is a northern neighbourhood of Mexico City. The treaty drew the boundary between the United States and Mexico at the Rio Grande and the Gila River; for a payment of $15,000,000 the United States received more than 525,000 square miles (1,360,000 square km) of land.

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So runs the tide away: What was the Santa Fe Ring?


The Villages of San Luis, San Francisco, San Pedro, San Acacio, Vallejos, and San Pablo were established by Hispano settlers in the 1850’s

Migration Timeline
1850 to 1900

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Our Lady of Guadalupe Church

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Extensive Settlement began in the San Luis valley primarily by Hispanic farmers and ranchers from New Mexico in the 1850's.

San Luis, Colorado

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San Acacio Mission Church (Capilla de Viejo San Acacio) – Built early in the 1860s, the Mission of San Acacio is the oldest standing church in Colorado


Sheep Herding


 Directory of Pueblo Colorado Register Properties

Quaker Flour Mill,oldest building in Pueblo, Colorado

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Italian Massacre At Rouse Mine

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Farm Workers in the Bracero Program


Hispano Soldiers

The Colorado Fuel and Iron Company (CF&I) was a large steel conglomerate founded by the merger of previous business interests in 1892. By 1903 it was mainly owned and controlled by John D. Rockefeller and Jay Gould's financial heirs.


Migration Timeline
1900 to 2022


CF&I Medical Dispensary


EVRAZ present day

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CF&I Mine in Tercio


Goat Hill


Pueblo Army Depot 1962

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The Chicano Movement, also referred to as El Movimiento, was a social and political movement in the United States inspired by prior acts of resistance among people of Mexican descent.


In the 1840's Mexican Traders and Settlers Brought Chile Peppers to Pueblo

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Dennis Maes Judicial Building

This 183,000 square foot Judicial complex is the jewel of Pueblo.  The building has very unique features including a 5-story glass rotunda and glued laminate beam structural “bee hive”.


Colorado State University, Pueblo

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